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      教案精选:高中英语《试论定语从句》教学设计


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 定语从句是英语学习中的重点,也是英语学习中的难点,要学好定语从句要了解以下几点:

首先,了解什么是定语从句,定语从句是一种用句子作定语,修饰名词或代词的主从复合句,通常直接跟在被修饰名词或代词之后,被修饰的名词或代词称为先行词。定语从句一般由关系代词或关系副词来引导,关系代词或关系副词一方面连接定语从句,另一方面其本身又在定语从句中充当某个句子成份。

eg:She is a girl who just can't say no. girl 为先行词,who just can't say no 为定语从句,关系词who 在整个定语从句中作主语。

常见的关系代词who(whom)指人、that 指人或物、whose,关系副词when、where以及why、how。关系代词在定语从句中可作主语、宾语、定语、表语,关系副词在定语从句中作状语。

eg: (1)He  laughs  best who laughs last.(who 在定语从句中作主语)(2)David is the boy whom /who you have talked to. (who/whom作定语从句的宾语)(3)This is the window whose glass is broken.(whose作定语)(4)Tell me the reason why you are late.(why 在定语从句中作状语)

到底用关系代词还是关系副词,就看定语从句中缺少什么,如果缺少主语、宾语、定语就用关系代词,如果缺少状语就用关系副词。

其次,应注意定语从句中的谓语动词一般应与先行词保持人称和数的一致。

eg:This is the only one of the students who is from Canada.

先行词  单数

定语从句中的动词时态应根据句意及上、下文而定,主句和从句可用不同的时态。

eg:Where is the comrade whom I saw yesterday.

    现在时    过去时

第三,定语从句,分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。限制性定语从句是先行词在意义上不可缺少的定语,关系十分密切,如果省去主句的意思就不完整,该从句不能用逗号和主句分开。

eg:That is a man who found my handbag.

非限制性定语从句是先行词和整个主句的附加说明,关系不是十分密切,若省去,主句的意思仍然清楚,该从句前常用逗号和主句分开。

eg:She was a good mother, who loved her children very much.

需要注意引导非限制性定语从句指事或物时只用which。

eg:The trees near the house, which I planted three years ago, are growing up well.

第四,运用定语从句中的关系代词或关系副词要注意以下几点:

1.介词+关系词(即关系代词在定语从句中作介词的宾语,如果介词放在关系代词的前面,则关系代词指人只能用whom,指事或物只能用which。)

who is the comrade with whom you shook hands just now?

The boy lives in the house in front of which there is a tall building.

当然,当介词放在从句的句末时,关系代词的用法不受以上限制。

2.关系代词that 可指人也可指物,但在下列情况下一般用that 引导,不用which/who。

1)当先行词为nothing, anything, everything, all, much, little, none, few,等不定代词时常用that,但something可用which。

eg:I can give you all that I can get.

2)当先行词被only, last 等修饰时常用that。

eg:This is the only picture that is inter esting.

3)当先行词被数词、形容词最高级来修饰时常用that,不用which。

eg:That is the longest river that runs through our village.

4)主句中有两个先行词,且一个表示人,另一个表示物,即先行词同时有人或物时常用that。

eg:We talked about the persons and the things that had never happened in school.

   人  物

关系代词本身在定语从句中用作表语,用that引导定语从句,但that 常省略。

eg:Our  hometown is no longer the place that it used to be.

6)若句中有两个定语从句,前一个定语从句已用了关系代词which,则第二个定语从句中的关系代词常用that。

eg: Edison set up a factory which produced things that had never seen before.


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